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 Strategic Multiples Committee of the Governor’s Education Finance

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عدد المساهمات : 6
تاريخ التسجيل : 12/08/2008

مُساهمةموضوع: Strategic Multiples Committee of the Governor’s Education Finance   الثلاثاء سبتمبر 16, 2008 3:00 am

Program Design
According to Clark (1997), the primary goal of the gifted program is to meet the instructional needs of gifted learners that cannot be met in a regular classroom program. The gifted program is different from the excellent education program we want for all learners because gifted learners’ needs are different.
Clark listed the following standards for a program for gifted learners that were developed by the Association for the Gifted (1989):
• “Programs for the gifted and talented are articulated with general education programs.
• Programs are comprehensive, structured, and sequenced across grade levels.
• Programs are an integral part of the school day and may be extended to other school and community-related settings.
• Administrative structures and program options are based on student needs.
• All gifted and talented students are assured programs commensurate with their abilities.
• Resources for program development and implementation are distributed equitably throughout the school district.
• Programs incorporate a blend of community resources and school-based support services in program development and delivery.
• Specialists in gifted child education are consulted in program policy development.
• Ongoing program evaluation activities are conducted for the purpose of continued program development.” (p.201)
Maker (1982a) stated, “The phrase most frequently used to describe the appropriate school curriculum for gifted students is ‘qualitatively different’ from the program for all students.” This statement implies that modifications to the basic curriculum must be of quality rather than quantity and build upon those characteristics of gifted students that make them different from other students. Although gifted students are expected to learn the same standards, themes, units and/or concepts as the rest of the class, opportunities should be provided on a regular basis for learning activities that require more depth and complexity (Winebrenner, 2001).
VanTassel-Baska (1998) emphasized that program development efforts for the gifted require careful planning, development, and implementation. NAGC (Landrum & Shaklee, 1998) developed a set of guiding principles to ensure that appropriate gifted education programming include comprehensive services based on sound philosophical, theoretical and empirical support. These guiding principles include:
1. Rather than any single gifted program, a continuum of programming services must exist for gifted learners.
2. Gifted Education must be adequately funded.
3. Gifted Education programming must evolve from a comprehensive and sound base.
4. Gifted Education programming services must be an integral part of the general education day.
5. Flexible grouping of students must be developed in order to facilitate differentiated instruction and curriculum.
6. Policies specific to adapting and adding to the nature and operations of the general education program are necessary for gifted education.
The learning environment should focus on the students’ ideas and interests rather than the teacher’s (learning centered versus teacher centered), focus on students working to solve real problems (independence versus dependence), be accepting rather than judgmental, be complex and include a variety of resources. Grouping of children should be varied, flexible and mobile, based on the activities (Maker, 1982).
Changing the actual place where students work, allowing flexible time limits, providing opportunities for in-depth research, altering the teacher’s expectations, and letting students work with mentors are examples of differentiating the gifted learning environment. Gifted students thrive in a challenging atmosphere in which individual differences are valued and nurtured (Winebrenner, 2001).
Administrative Delivery Models such as Resource Classes, Cluster Group Classes, and Advanced Content Classes are examples of direct services implemented to meet the needs of gifted learners. Indirect services may include the Collaborative Teaching Model, Academic Mentorship and/or Internships, and Dual Enrollment in a higher educational setting. Full-day programs including Magnet Programs and Gifted Academies may also be created to meet the needs of gifted learners. Ideally, Gifted Education programs should include a variety of administrative provisions, e.g., pullout enrichment opportunities, achievement grouping and acceleration, to address gifted students’ advanced learning needs (Clark, 1997).
According to a report by Delcourt, Lloyd, Cornell, and Goldberg (1994), students in pullout, separate classes, and special school programs showed higher achievement than gifted students who were not in programs and those who were in programs provided only in the regular classroom. Acceleration strategies such as early entrance to school and grade skipping, which are associated with low program costs, typically have large effect sizes when student achievement is assessed (Kulik, 1992; Rogers, 1991).
Clark (1997) suggested that each district would be advised to have a wide variety of program options available for the range of services needed. “Because no one structure can meet the needs of all of the gifted learners in any district, providing a range of planned services would be the best practice” (p.214). Barbra Shannon, Senior National Attorney for the U.S. Department of Education’s Office for Civil Rights, has frequently reminded Georgia educators that the ability to match appropriate instructional services to student profiles is as important an equity issue as using a variety of indicators of students’ potential giftedness in the identification process (B. Shannon, personal communication, January 2003). Georgia’s Regulations of Approved Delivery Models for Gifted
Education Services include all the approaches described above, and current funding formulas encourage school systems to provide a variety of programming options.
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Strategic Multiples Committee of the Governor’s Education Finance
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